Copper use reduction in Mediterranean environment for Plasmopara viticola in organic management

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Downy Mildew (DM), Plasmopara viticola, is the most dangerous grapevinedisease. Copper-based fungicides are the only effective productsallowed in organic viticulture. Copper (Cu) use will be limited to 6kg/ha/year as from the beginning of 2006.
Westarted a survey on organic viticulture in Apulia region and ananalysis of Cu compounds, Cu alternatives (plant extracts, naturallyoccurring substances and biological control agents) and low Cu inputstrategies adapted to organic vineyards.
The sensitive floatingdiscs or G. K. Hill oospores germination test showed that Mediterraneanoospores (Apulia) germination occurs earlier (March), is faster andhigher than in their northern counterparts (Trentino).
The mostphytotoxic formulation on Uva di Troia leaves was Cu peptidate (Naturam5/400>Naturam 5/200) followed by Cu hydroxide (Kocide 2000) and Cusulphate (Bordeaux mixture). Naturam 5/400 was the most phytotoxicstrategy both in terms of incidence and severity. It caused alsoreticulations on bunches. Potassium phosphonate (Kendal) phytotoxicitywas significantly the lowest one.
All formulations allowed a goodcontrol on Uva di Troia leaves but not on bunches. The sole effectivestrategy on both organs was Kendal. Bordeaux mixture (5.5 kgCu/ha/year) seemed more effective on bunches than on leaves. Naturam5/400 (1.3 kg Cu/ha/year) was the other way round. Kocide 2000 (2.5 kgCu/ha/year) permitted a satisfactory disease management on both leavesand bunches. Naturam 5/200 (0.9 kg Cu/ha/year) insured an acceptablecontrol on leaves but not on bunches.
The most sensitive cultivarto DM was Primitivo while Negroamaro was the most resistant varietyamong the seven tested ones. The most sensitive cultivar to Naturam 5injuries was Italia and the most resistant one was Negroamaro. In thecase of Kocide 2000, the highest damages were on Uva di Troia whereasPrimitivo was the most tolerant variety. Therefore, phytotoxicity isinfluenced by climatic conditions, Cu formulations, use doses, and theconcerned cultivar. Cu phytotoxicity is higher on wet leaves in hotweather. It seems that there is an interaction between the cultivar andthe Cu formulation that determines its efficacy and the extension andthe severity of its damages. Phytotoxicity symptoms differed not onlyin their severity and incidence but also in their nature. The leastsensitive cultivars to DM and Cu phytotoxicity were the wine varietiesmainly Negroamaro, Uva di Troia and Chardonnay.
The resultsobtained showed that Kocide 2000 can be used for the first treatmentswhile Kendal would be reserved for the intermediate ones whereasBordeaux mixture can be utilised at the end of the cycle especially inthe case of severe infections. Naturam 5 can be used in the mid and atthe end of the growing season whenever leaves are dry and phytotoxicityrisk is minimum.

Tesi di Master
“Master theses Report” Post-graduate Training Programme
Mediterranean Organic Agriculture. Research & Experimentation 2001-2003

Pertot,A. Vecchione, L. Zulini, E. Mescalchin, V. Simeone, H. El Bilali.“Viticoltura biologica: le realtà in Trentino e Puglia”. InformatoreAgrario n. 18/2005, pp. 67-71.

H. El Bilali, V. Simeone, A.Vecchione, L. Zulini, I. Pertot “Reduction of copper use in organicviticulture: efficacy evaluation and phytotoxicity assessment oftraditional and new copper compounds in northern and southern Italy” inWater, land and food security in arid and semi-arid regions September 6– 11, 2005 Valenzano (BA) Italy

Downy Mildew (DM), Plasmopara viticola, is the most dangerous grapevinedisease. Copper-based fungicides are the only effective productsallowed in organic viticulture. Copper (Cu) use will be limited to 6kg/ha/year as from the beginning of 2006.
Westarted a survey on organic viticulture in Apulia region and ananalysis of Cu compounds, Cu alternatives (plant extracts, naturallyoccurring substances and biological control agents) and low Cu inputstrategies adapted to organic vineyards.
The sensitive floatingdiscs or G. K. Hill oospores germination test showed that Mediterraneanoospores (Apulia) germination occurs earlier (March), is faster andhigher than in their northern counterparts (Trentino).
The mostphytotoxic formulation on Uva di Troia leaves was Cu peptidate (Naturam5/400>Naturam 5/200) followed by Cu hydroxide (Kocide 2000) and Cusulphate (Bordeaux mixture). Naturam 5/400 was the most phytotoxicstrategy both in terms of incidence and severity. It caused alsoreticulations on bunches. Potassium phosphonate (Kendal) phytotoxicitywas significantly the lowest one.
All formulations allowed a goodcontrol on Uva di Troia leaves but not on bunches. The sole effectivestrategy on both organs was Kendal. Bordeaux mixture (5.5 kgCu/ha/year) seemed more effective on bunches than on leaves. Naturam5/400 (1.3 kg Cu/ha/year) was the other way round. Kocide 2000 (2.5 kgCu/ha/year) permitted a satisfactory disease management on both leavesand bunches. Naturam 5/200 (0.9 kg Cu/ha/year) insured an acceptablecontrol on leaves but not on bunches.
The most sensitive cultivarto DM was Primitivo while Negroamaro was the most resistant varietyamong the seven tested ones. The most sensitive cultivar to Naturam 5injuries was Italia and the most resistant one was Negroamaro. In thecase of Kocide 2000, the highest damages were on Uva di Troia whereasPrimitivo was the most tolerant variety. Therefore, phytotoxicity isinfluenced by climatic conditions, Cu formulations, use doses, and theconcerned cultivar. Cu phytotoxicity is higher on wet leaves in hotweather. It seems that there is an interaction between the cultivar andthe Cu formulation that determines its efficacy and the extension andthe severity of its damages. Phytotoxicity symptoms differed not onlyin their severity and incidence but also in their nature. The leastsensitive cultivars to DM and Cu phytotoxicity were the wine varietiesmainly Negroamaro, Uva di Troia and Chardonnay.
The resultsobtained showed that Kocide 2000 can be used for the first treatmentswhile Kendal would be reserved for the intermediate ones whereasBordeaux mixture can be utilised at the end of the cycle especially inthe case of severe infections. Naturam 5 can be used in the mid and atthe end of the growing season whenever leaves are dry and phytotoxicityrisk is minimum.

Pubblicazioni: 

Tesi di Master
“Master theses Report” Post-graduate Training Programme
Mediterranean Organic Agriculture. Research & Experimentation 2001-2003

Pertot,A. Vecchione, L. Zulini, E. Mescalchin, V. Simeone, H. El Bilali.“Viticoltura biologica: le realtà in Trentino e Puglia”. InformatoreAgrario n. 18/2005, pp. 67-71.

H. El Bilali, V. Simeone, A.Vecchione, L. Zulini, I. Pertot “Reduction of copper use in organicviticulture: efficacy evaluation and phytotoxicity assessment oftraditional and new copper compounds in northern and southern Italy” inWater, land and food security in arid and semi-arid regions September 6– 11, 2005 Valenzano (BA) Italy

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